Please make sure that you are using an up-to-date and supported browser (Edge, Firefox from version 68, Chrome from version 86, Safari from version 12). Otherwise we can't guarantee that the website is working as intended. If you are already using an up-to-date browser, please try refreshing the site. If the error persists, please get in touch via email@example.com.
The 'Biographical Portal' is a cooperative project of the Bavarian State Library, the Historical Committee at the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities, the Austrian Academy of Sciences, and the Foundation Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. A joint index makes available more than 100,000 scholarly biographies of persons from all social backgrounds and nearly all periods of German, Austrian, and Swiss history.